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Direct Nickel Flash Smelting

Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) This process enables high-grade nickel matte to be produced using a single flash smelting furnace. It allows higher recovery of nickel, cobalt, and precious metals than conventional nickel processes when processing phases and material recirculation are kept to …

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Direct Nickel Process

Direct Nickel Process

Outotec® Direct Nickel Process Get continuous production of high-grade nickel matte with low iron content with the Direct Outotec Nickel Flash Smelting Process. When coupled with our slag cleaning process, nickel smelting is straightforward, cost effective, and does not require ladles or complex plant layouts. Offers raw material flexibility

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State Of The Art In Nickel Smelting: Direct Outokumpu ...

State Of The Art In Nickel Smelting: Direct Outokumpu ...

The direct nickel ISASMELT™ process is similar to the Direct Outokumpu Nickel (DON) process where the metal values in the smelting slag are recovered in …

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Flash Smelting

Flash Smelting

Flash Smelting: Analysis, Control and Optimization deals with the analysis, control, and optimization of flash smelting. This book explores flash smelting in general and Outokumpu and Inco flash smelting in particular, and also presents a mathematical description for the flash smelting process.

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Nickel: Smelting

Nickel: Smelting

Nickel flash smelting Outotec® Nickel Flash Smelting Process is a benchmark nickel-smelting method and a clear global leader in the world’s primary nickel production from sulfide raw materials. Efficiency and improved environmental and in-plant hygiene have been the guiding principles in developing the process.

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Processing Of Pgm Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates In A ...

Processing Of Pgm Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates In A ...

Producing bulk concentrates and treating them by Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) to matte and then hydrometallurgical refining, offers a reliable route from concentrate to product.

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Flash Smelting

Flash Smelting

Flash smelting (Finnish: Liekkisulatus, literally "flame-smelting") is a smelting process for sulfur -containing ores including chalcopyrite. The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore. …

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Marja Riekkola

Marja Riekkola

Only the pyrometallurgical flash smelting process is in use in Finland to recover nickel from sulphide concentrates and it is the main process described in this report. The information presented is largely based on environmental permit ... 2.5.3 Direct nickel flash smelting (DON process) .....17 2.5.4 Gas cleaning .....18 2.5.5 Processing of ...

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Outotec Smelting Solutions For The Pgm Industry

Outotec Smelting Solutions For The Pgm Industry

The Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Process was first implemented at Harjavalta Smelter in Finland. Simultaneously with the adoption of the new process, the nickel production was doubled.

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Flash Smelting

Flash Smelting

Flash smelting (Finnish: Liekkisulatus, literally "flame-smelting") is a smelting process for sulfur-containing ores including chalcopyrite.The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore. It has also been adapted for nickel and lead production.. A second flash smelting system was developed by the International Nickel ...

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State Of The Art In Nickel Smelting: Direct Outokumpu ...

State Of The Art In Nickel Smelting: Direct Outokumpu ...

In the DON process, high grade nickel matte of low iron content is produced in the flash smelting furnace directly without subsequent converting. The metal values in the smelting slag are recovered in an electric furnace as an iron containing Ni matte.

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The Copper Flash Cc Smelting Process :: Total Materia Article

The Copper Flash Cc Smelting Process :: Total Materia Article

Flash smelting is a pyrometallurgical process for smelting metal sulphide concentrates. It is used primarily for copper sulphide concentrates, but it is also used to a significant extent for nickel sulphide concentrates. The flash smelting process for sulphide concentrates was developed by the Finnish mining company, Outokumpu Oy, from 1948 ...

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Processing Of Pgm Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates In A ...

Processing Of Pgm Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates In A ...

Producing bulk concentrates and treating them by Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) to matte and then hydrometallurgical refining, offers a reliable route from concentrate to product. In the DON process high grade matte with low Fe-content is produced in the Flash smelting furnace (FSF) and metal values in slag are recovered in an ...

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(Pdf) Copper Production With Outokumpu Flash Smelting…

(Pdf) Copper Production With Outokumpu Flash Smelting…

The Blister Flash Smelting technology (Direct-to-Blister Flash Smelting and Kennecott- Outokumpu Flash Converting Technology) is described in an other paper presentation in this conference in more ...

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Outotec Smelting Solutions For The Pgm …

Outotec Smelting Solutions For The Pgm …

Outotec Flash Smelting Process The Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Process was first implemented at Harjavalta Smelter in Finland. Simultaneously with the adoption of the new process, the nickel production was doubled. The entire target of the project was to improve the profitability, cut sulphur dioxide emissions, improve the

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The Smelting Of Copper

The Smelting Of Copper

smelting of copper-nickel concentrates in a 19.5 MVA furnace with six in-line electrodes. The matte- and slag-tapping temperatures, slag temperatures, slag analyses, electrical data, and electrode position were measured. Radioactive tracers were introduced into the slag, and quantitative results relating to the flow pattern within the furnace ...

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Cycle Data

Cycle Data

DON flash (Direct Nickel Flash) smelting Ammonia PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) - H reduction EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) Chloride and sulphide electrowinning HPAL (High Pressure Acid Leach) Hydrosulphidic refining Flash Furnace Pyro-refining Natural gas reforming Volatisation

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Electric Smelting Atrustenburg Platinum Mines Limited …

Electric Smelting Atrustenburg Platinum Mines Limited …

alternative smelting methods. Rea-lizing that the R.P.M. concentrate contains ahigh percentage ofmag-nesium, they immediately focused their attention onelectric smelting, where high operating temperatures could be tolerated. A further at-traction wasthat power costs inthe Republic ofSouth Africa are fairly Iowatabout RO,OSper kW hand

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Impact Of Mgo And K 2 O On Slag

Impact Of Mgo And K 2 O On Slag

Nov 13, 2019· Slag chemistry of the direct nickel matte smelting was studied in typical industrial high-grade nickel matte smelting conditions at 1400 °C and 0.1 atm pSO2. The experimental technique used involved equilibration, quenching and direct elemental phase composition analysis by Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis. Magnesia and potassia, a typical gangue constituent of sulfidic nickel concentrates ...

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Phase Chemical Composition Of Slag From A Direct Nickel ...

Phase Chemical Composition Of Slag From A Direct Nickel ...

A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag.

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Oxygen Pressure In The Outokumpu Flash Smelting Furnace ...

Oxygen Pressure In The Outokumpu Flash Smelting Furnace ...

Jul 18, 2013· AbstractOxygen-activity measurements and sampling for chemical assay were carried out in a nickel flash smelting furnace and slag-cleaning electric furnace during industrial operation. In the primary Direct Outokumpu Nickel (DON) smelting furnace, which produces high-grade nickel matte, the oxygen activity and chemical compositions of the slag and matte were quite uniform throughout the ...

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Environmental Guidelines For Nickel Smelting And Refining

Environmental Guidelines For Nickel Smelting And Refining

flash smelting. Flash smelting is the most common process but electric smelting is used for more complex raw materials when increased flexibility is needed. Both processes use dried concentrates. Electric smelting requires a roasting step ahead of the smelter to reduce sulfur content and volatiles. Older nickel smelting processes, such as blast or

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Nickel Flash Smelting :: Total Materia Article

Nickel Flash Smelting :: Total Materia Article

In Nickel Flash Smelting technology, sulfide nickel concentrate is processed in the Outotec ® Flash Smelting Furnace to produce nickel matte and slag. The matte is transported to the Peirce-Smith converters where it is blown to high-grade matte. The metal values in the smelting and converting slags are recovered in the electric furnace as ...

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A Thermodynamic Model Of Nickel Smelting And Direct High ...

A Thermodynamic Model Of Nickel Smelting And Direct High ...

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process. In this model, as many as 16 elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H) are considered, and two nickel sulfide ...

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What Is Nickel Smelting? (With Picture)

What Is Nickel Smelting? (With Picture)

Jul 31, 2020· After the nickel smelting is complete, and the nickel has cooled, it is then used for many different purposes. Nickel is commonly used as an alloying agent with steel and other metals, because it is corrosion-resistant and has high polish, or it sold as is to other industries so they can make various products.It also is used to hydrogenate vegetable oils, along with batteries and magnets.

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Smelting Furnace

Smelting Furnace

Copper slag properties in reverberatory furnace smelting, flash smelting, and other processes are similar. A typical smelting slag contains approximately 30–45% FeO, 30–40% SiO 2, 5–10% Al 2 O 3, 2–6% CaO, and 2–4% MgO (Kokal, 2006). Table 3.2 presents the wide-range chemical composition of copper slag from different sources.

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Boliden Harjavalta

Boliden Harjavalta

The flash smelting method has been un-der continuous development over the years, and is today the most widely used smelting method for copper concentrates in the world. Ten years later, the smelter in Harjavalta was also the first in the world to begin flash smelting nickel concentrates.

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(Pdf) Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling And Nickel Slag ...

(Pdf) Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling And Nickel Slag ...

The direct Outotec (previously Outokumpu) nickel flash smelting (DON) technology is one of the prevailing processes for nickel smelting. In t he DON process, dried nickel concentrate is f ed to a

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(Pdf) Flash Converting

(Pdf) Flash Converting

The process itself is proven, as its features are similar to those in FSF, Direct-to-Blister and Direct Outotec Nickel Flash Smelting (DON), with one significant difference: it is the easiest of ...

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